The chemical structure of water is truly amazing. Simple, yet brilliant. The oxygen moleule has extra negatively charged electrons. These electrons oppose the single electron in each hydrogen atom. The resulting structure gives a 104.5 degree angle between the two hydrogens and the one oxygen. This 104.5 degree angle is essential to all of water's unique properties. Were it not for this angle, you would not be alive!! This angle gives water its four very unique properties that sustain all life. Water also forms "hydrogen bonds", a type of VanderWaals force that is not an actual chemical bond. The positively charged hydrogen attracts the negatively charged oxygen on another water molecule creating the ability of water to provide surface tension, to dissolve many ions, to expand when frozen, and to partially evaporate at low temperatures.

1) Water is the Universal Solvent

Since water is able to dissolve nearly any substance, given enough time, even metals and minerals can be dissolved and carried to living organisms such as plants, trees, and animals. Without these necessary elements, life could not thrive on earth, as these metals would not be found in a consumable state.

2) Water has high surface tension---capillary action

Water's high surface tension not only allows ships to float, but it also is responsible for "capillary action". Think of what water does when you place a paper towel in it. It "climbs" up the paper towel. Trees use narrow channels to take advantage of capillary action. Large trees are able to carry several tons of water per day as high as 100 meters to the very top of the tree. Human-made suction pumps are currently unable to do this!!! Were it not for water's capillary action, plants and trees could not exist...and neither would we!

3) Water expands when it freezes, causing ice to float

This is a most unique and powerful property of water. Instead of getting more dense when it freezes, water actually expands when it freezes into ice. This causes ice to float. If ice sunk, then during winter, a lake or even ocean would progressively freeze over as water froze on the surface, then sank to the bottom, and so on. Instead of fish and plants surviving under the blanket of protection of a surface layer of ice, they would be frozen along with the rest of the water, and ocean life would cease to exist. This would also affect land life, since a proportionately small amount of the oceans and lakes would be expected to melt during summer causing draught on the land.

4) Water partially vaporizes at low temperatures--evaporation

Water comes to land through the hydrologic cycle. Evaporation from the oceans delivers water to land. The land water then erodes into the oceans and the cycle is repeated. Without evaporation, this cycle would cease to exist and the land would become dry as a desert, and little life could survive or thrive.

part of a collection of amazing things...
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Anomalies of water:

1) Water has an unusual ability to dissolve other substances.

2) It has an anomalously high dielectric constant.

3) It has the ability to form colloidal sols.

4) The water molecule can form hydrogen bridges with other molecules.

These four anomalous properties give water the ability to transport minerals and waste products in water bodies, plants and animals. It gives water the ability to hold oxygen for animal life, and carbon dioxide for plant life.

The unique dipole moment of water establishes the enormous extent of permanent-polarized bonding (ionic bonding), and the angle between chemical bonds. These determine the water's ability to create the multitude of necessary molecules involved in every life process. For example, intra-molecular hydrogen bonding between the hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms in N--H bonds enables molecules to fold into proteins having specific three-dimensional shapes essential for biological activity. If the angle between hydrogen atoms in the water molecule were different, there would be no complex life-giving molecules, and no life on earth.

5) The Directional Flow of Water: Water flows. When it rains, water comes down to the earth to nourish all life. It then flows towards streams and rivers to the sea where it evaporates and goes back into the atmosphere to repeat the cycle. The unidirectional flow of water in the evaporation/condensation cycle enables water all over the earth to continuously cleanse itself.

Because of the evaporation/condensation cycle that perpetuates life on earth, water tends to generally flow in the same direction. Because of this cycle, not only does man look up to heaven from whence comes his help, but so does virtually every other living organism. Many creatures were given fascinating features, such as anchors, moved by delicate threads spun out from their toes; or suction cups or sticky substances because water flows. Some organisms strain water by means of nets which they have grown or spun. Other organisms have special features of their mouths so they can obtain food with little expenditure of energy.

Because water flows, it is oxygenated and purified, and picks up nutrients for plant and animal life. Because water flows, currents carry fresh water to the equator and to the poles. Lakes near the equator have a higher oxygen demand, and accordingly are freshened by heavier rainfalls, hurricanes, typhoons, winds and wave action than lakes with lower oxygen demand.

6) Contraction at 4o C: Water anomalously contracts at 4oC. This causes an inversion and restoration of water bodies. It takes surface oxygen down to the bottom and raises bottom toxic gases to the surface to be neutralized and exhausted. Water is not supposed to be most dense as a liquid at 4o C, or about 40o F. All other liquids are most dense when they reach the freezing or solid state. Because of this anomaly, we have spring and fall turnover of lakes in the temperate climates.

Without spring and fall turnover, oxygenated surface water would not go to the bottom of lakes twice a year to enable life to exist at the lake bottom so that organic sediment could be biodegraded, bottom toxic gases brought up to the surface and removed, and fish to spawn and feed on bottom-feeding insects. Without this turnover, there would be no life in our lakes. In the sub-tropic and tropic zones on earth, spring and fall turnover is replaced by hurricanes, typhoons, monsoons and torrential rains (another coincidence or Intelligent Design?).

7) Expansion upon Freezing: Water is one of the only compounds that expands when it freezes. If it contracted as other compounds do, ice would sink and destroy life. Without this anomaly, ice would sink to the bottom of lakes, and the lakes in the temperate and arctic climates would be frozen from the bottom up.

8) Melting and Boiling Points: Water has an unusually high melting temperature of 0oC instead of -80oC. Its boiling temperature is +100oC, instead of about -70oC. Graphs of adjacent molecules in the Periodic Table of Elements show a straight line relationship of melting and boiling points far below 0oC. As examples, the hydrides of chlorine and fluorine have this same dipole characteristic, but fall smoothly on the graphs. 15

Table 1. Melting and boiling points of hydrogen compounds vertical to oxygen on the Periodic Table of Elements.

H2O H2S H2Se H2Te

Boiling Point, o C +100 -59.6 -4.2 -2

Melting Point, o C 0 -82.9 -6.4 -4.8

Table 2. Melting and boiling points of hydrogen compounds horizontal to oxygen in the Periodic Table of Elements.


Boiling Point, o C -161.4 -33.4 +100 +19.4

Melting Point, o C -182 -77.7 0 -8.3

According to water's neighboring molecules in the Periodic Table of Elements, ice should melt somewhere around -100o C instead of 0o C and should boil at about -80o C instead of 100o C. If it did as it should, all water would be in the gaseous state and there would be no life on earth.

The water molecule has a unique dipolar nature. This enables hydrogen atoms that are bonded covalently to the oxygen atom of one molecule to bond to the oxygen atom of adjacent water molecules. These interactions must be disrupted to boil water and therefore causes its boiling point to be much higher than it would be if there was no hydrogen bonding. Without this anomaly, there would be no liquid water or life on earth at earth temperatures.

9) Dielectric Strength: Water has an extremely high dielectric strength compared to other liquids. This gives water the ability to dissolve compounds that other liquids do not have. This peculiar nature of water permits all living organisms to transport minerals and waste products to the necessary parts of their bodies. If water could not readily dissolve compounds, there would be no life on earth.

Table 3. Relative Dielectric Constants of Some Liquids and Solids.16

Water 80

Abietic Acid 4

Alcohol 25

Carbon Tetrachloride 2.21

Ethyl Ether 4.8

Petroleum 2.1

Transformer Oil 2.5

Turpentine 2.2

Asbestos 2.7

Glass 4.5 – 7

Marble 8

Mica 6

Paper 2 – 3.5

Paraffin 2.3

Polystyrene 2.6

Porcelain 4.5

Quartz 4

Rubber 2.5 – 3

Sulphur 4

Wood 4

10) Surface Tension: Water has a surface tension 2 – 4 times the surface tension of most organic liquids. Surface tension is highest for pure water. This enables insects called neuston to walk and live on the surface of water in low-nutrient water bodies, where they would starve if immersed in the water. This anomaly permits life when the water nutrients are too low to support life. This helps add nutrients to the subsurface water so that it will support life and insects and so that fish can then live below the surface.

Surface tension of water decreases when there are nutrients in the water. Water changes its surface tension to not support neuston when nutrients in the subsurface water can support life. This prevents further nutrient influx to the water from neuston and helps protect subsurface species from destruction by excessive nutrients.

11) Specific Heat of water: Another self-protective anomaly of water is its very high specific heat compared to other materials. Specific heat is the amount of heat required to raise its temperature. This means that it is more difficult to raise the temperature of water compared to other substances. For example, the specific heat (the amount of heat in calories required to raise the temperature of 1 gm of material 1 0 C) for water is 1.0, while the specific heat for rocks is only about 0.2. If water is frozen, its specific heat becomes half, so ice tends to warm easily. If it is liquid, it tends to be more difficult to raise the temperature. To boil, it requires a specific heat of 80. Because of this phenomenon, water tends to remain near the most desirable temperature for life on earth regardless of drastic changes in atmospheric temperatures. The anomalously high specific heat of water and the right quantity of water stabilizes earth's temperature.

Table 4. Specific Heats of Various Elements and Liquids.17

Water 1.0

Alcohol 0.548

Aluminum 0.215

Argon 0.124

Benzol 0.340

Carbon (graphite) 0.170

Carbon (diamond) 0.124

Ethylene Glycol 0.528

Gold 0.0308

Helium 1.24

Hydrogen 3.41

Iron 0.106

Lead 0.038

Magnesium 0.243

Mercury (liquid) 0.03299

Nitrogen 0.249

Oxygen 0.219

Petroleum 0.511

Potassium 0.180

Silver 0.0566

Sodium 0.293

Turpentine 0.411

Zinc 0.0928

12) Heat of Evaporation: Water has an extremely high heat of evaporation of water compared to other liquids. The extremely high heat of evaporation causes evaporative cooling to increase in plants, animals and water bodies as temperature increases. The high evaporation rate cools plants and animals, protecting living organisms from over-heating. Its high evaporation and condensation rates match required rainfall for most of the earth.

13) Density: Warm water is less dense than cold water. Because of this, warm water floats on the surface of lakes, rivers and the oceans insulating the main portion of the water bodies from being over-heated by the sun and from killing its living organisms. In combination with its anomalously poor conductivity, the floating warm water insulates water bodies and living organisms against excessive heating.

14) Conductivity: Water is a poor conductor of heat compared to most other materials. The anomalously poor conductivity of water protects living organisms from freezing or boiling. This also protects the main portion of the water bodies from being over-heated by the sun and from killing its living organisms.

15) Osmosis and Capillary Force: Water also has the ability to pass through cell membranes and climb great heights in plants and trees through osmosis and capillary force. Osmotic pressure and capillary action enable water to climb hundreds of feet to the tops of the highest trees. The mystery of osmosis enables plants to feed, and plants and animals to carry on a multitude of life processes. Osmosis enables marine creatures to absorb fresh water in an increasing salt-water environment. Then an increase in cell pressure causes the osmosis to reverse itself and preserve the life of the creature. The same mysterious action takes place on a micro-scale within the bodies of all creatures.

16, 17 and 18) Viscosity, relaxation time and self-diffusion: Three more anomalies are an excessive decrease in viscosity, decrease in molecular relaxation time, and increased rate of self diffusion with temperature rises. These also protect plants, animals, and water bodies against excessive temperatures by improving circulation.

19) Carbon dioxide: Another characteristic of water is its ability to enable carbon dioxide to be released from bicarbonates to support plant life. Water enables carbon dioxide to attach to carbonates. It is then carried in the bloodstream to capillaries in the lungs and exhausted to keep animals alive. It can be carried to plants in soil and water to perpetuate plant life.

All of these anomalies of water protect not only the water bodies on the earth, but also protect the lives of all living organisms as it flows through the organisms performing its necessary life-giving functions. This strange behavior of water was built into the protons and electrons that made water at the time of creation. These anomalies of water must have been planned by an extremely intelligent Creator, rather than by accident as perceived by the mainstream scientific community.

Water has many more characteristics that result in life. The unique physical properties of water, the chemistry of water, the density of water are anomalies that strongly suggest that an Infinite Intelligence created water. If only one of these functions were missing, there would be no life on earth.

....to be digested
....from Robert Laing